AHMR Volume 8 Number 2 May - August 2022
The African Human Mobility Review (AHMR) is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed on-line journal created to encourage and facilitate the study of all aspects (socio-economic, political, legislative and developmental) of human mobility in Africa. Through the publication of original research, policy discussions and evidence-based research papers, the AHMR provides a comprehensive forum devoted exclusively to the analysis of contemporaneous trends, migration patterns and some of the most important migration-related issues. The journal is accessible on-line at no charge. AHMR is jointly owned by the Scalabrini Institute for Human Mobility in Africa (SIHMA) and University of the Western Cape (UWC). 
This issue consists of a book review and five articles that promote the practice of original research and policy discussions and provides a comprehensive forum devoted exclusively to the analysis of contemporaneous trends, migration patterns, and some of the most important migration-related issues in Africa.  To get an idea of what the new AHMR volume includes, consider the following:
‘Citizen and Pariah’
The review was made by Daniel Tevera on a book entitled “Citizen and Pariah”, by Vanya Gastrow. The reviewer made a critical and scholarly evaluation of the entire book. According to Tevera, the author informs the reader about the violent crime affecting Somali shopkeepers, their ability to access informal and formal justice mechanisms, and efforts to regulate their economic activities. The reviewer further indicates that, from the different chapters of the book it becomes clear that the author uses the term “pariah” as a social and geographical metaphor. The reviewer concludes that this book is an important contribution that is divided into three parts, consisting of twenty-one essays that delicately address the marginalization and victimization of immigrant entrepreneurs. The book clearly indicates that foreign shopkeepers with business interests in urban spaces have been victims of xenophobic attacks in most parts of South Africa. 
‘The Impact of International Migration on Skills Supply and Demand in South Africa’
The first article by Derek Yu is entitled “The Impact of International Migration on Skills Supply and Demand in South Africa”. Using a quantitative method of research that involved the use and analysis of data from Census 2001 and 2011 as well as Community Surveys 2007 and 2016. This is the first study in South Africa that compares natives and immigrants with emigrants. The study analyzed the most recent census and survey data of the top five emigration destination countries and examined the well-being of South African emigrants in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the United States of America, Australia, and Canada. The results of this study enhance the understanding of the impact of international migration on skills supply and demand in South Africa, and identify the skills needs of the country. The study also provides stakeholders and policymakers with insights to better identify the priority critical skills needs of the country – critical skills that are lost, and skills that are in great demand but in short supply – so that these skills needs can be prioritized when issuing work and residence permits to immigrants. 
‘Moonlighting Behavior among Migrants: Determinants and Implications for Well-Being in South Africa’
The second article by Emmanuel Quarshie, Imhotep Paul Alagidede, Albert Duodu, and Edwin Teye Sosi is entitled “Moonlighting Behavior among Migrants: Determinants and Implications for Well-Being in South Africa”. The study applied quantitative research methods to measure the key determinants of moonlighting, defined as a “situation where an individual maintains primary employment and engages in additional work for pay”. The study also examined the differences that exist between migrants and non-migrants. Furthermore, a model of determinants of happiness was estimated to draw synergies or nuances in the estimated selfreported well-being model. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant relationship between moonlighting and self-reported well-being. 
‘Fish-for-Sex (FFS) and risk of HIV Infection among Fishers in Elmina Fishing Community in Ghana’
The third article by Sylvester Kyei-Gyamfi is entitled “Fish-for-Sex (FFS) and risk of HIV Infection among Fishers in Elmina Fishing Community in Ghana”. Methodologically, this paper is based on a cross-sectional study to investigate a relationship between human mobility and HIV risks among 385 fishers in Elmina. The theory of gender and power (TGP) was used to address the wider social and environmental issues surrounding women. The article provides an in-depth analysis of the status quo and the distribution of power and authority, affective influences, and gender-specific norms within heterosexual relationships. The results of this study reveal a strong link between human mobility and engagement in FFS and indicate that mobile women engaged in FFS more than those who were non-mobile. Furthermore, the research established a correlation between high levels of mobility and HIV infection among fish traders. The article recommends the empowerment of female petty fish traders and calls for the intensification of education by relevant agencies involved in HIV education on safe practices in fishing communities. 
‘Destination Substitution and Social Networks among Urban Refugees in Kampala, Uganda’
The fourth article by Francis Anyanzu and Nicole De Wet-Billings is entitled “Destination Substitution and Social Networks among Urban Refugees in Kampala, Uganda”. This study is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted in Kampala, Uganda, with respondents drawn from the Somali, Congolese (DRC), Eritrean, Burundian, Ethiopian, South Sudanese, and Sudanese refugee communities. The researchers employed non-probability sampling strategies due to the hidden or transient nature of the urban refugees. The outcomes of this study suggest that social network factors facilitate the rechanneling of refugees to Kampala. Moreover, individuals who had knowledge of someone living in Kampala or who had ever lived in Kampala were more likely to move to the city after having considered going to alternative destinations. 
‘Returnees and the Dilemmas of (Un)sustainable Return and Reintegration in Somalia’
The fifth article by Jacqueline Owigo is entitled “Returnees and the Dilemmas of (Un)sustainable Return and Reintegration in Somalia”. The research employed a qualitative research design involving semi-structured interviews conducted in Mogadishu, Somalia and Nairobi, Kenya. This study was grounded in two strands of literature, namely, the sustainable return and reintegration as well as the theoretical studies on the aspirations/ability model. The findings of this research show that returning migrants to Somalia faced a challenging context characterized by insecurity, violence, drought, lack of livelihood opportunities, and widespread humanitarian needs. The study also established that most returnees faced considerable challenges finding employment, decent housing, secure living environment, and educational opportunities for their children. I would like to thank all Board Members, editors, reviewers, authors, and readers for their continued engagement. Finally, I am confident that the African Human Mobility Review, Volume 8, Number 2, 2022 provides a significant resource for scholars, practitioners, and students. 
Taken from the Editorial
Access the complete Journal here: https://sihma.org.za/journal/ahmr-volume-8-number-2-may-august-2022-1.
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